Sunday, May 24, 2020

Logos, Pathos and Ethos in Mark Twains The Damned Human Race and Barbara Kingsolvers Stone Soup Free Essay Example, 1000 words

Twain goes further to set three main frameworks for his discussions by defining what humans, mammals and other lesser creatures are. This involves ethos because it sets the framework for the discussion and analysis. Then he discusses the issues of the negativity of the human race, starting from the way human beings kill other animals, how powerful people exploit the poor and cheat and this is something that other animals never do. This is a form of pathos that appeals to the emotions of the reader and gets the reader to accept Twain s unique viewpoint. He scientifically identifies that animals have emotions and hatreds by saying that among the animals, man is the only one that harbors insults and injuries, broods over them, waits till a chance offers, then takes revenge. (Twain Para 4). This is logos and offers a logical explanation of how human beings differ from all other creatures around the world. He then goes on to appeal to the emotions of the reader by stating comparing the harem of roosters to men who force women into sex. We will write a custom essay sample on Logos, Pathos and Ethos in Mark Twains The Damned Human Race and Barbara Kingsolvers Stone Soup or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Importance of 1968 PFLP Hijacking of El Al Flight

On July 22, 1968, an El Al Israel Airlines plan departing from Rome and headed for Tel Aviv, Israel, was hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They successfully diverted the plane, carrying 32 passengers and 10 crew members, to Algiers. Most of the passengers were released relatively quickly, but for seven crew members and five Israeli male passengers, who were held hostage for five weeks. After 40 days of negotiation, the Israelis agreed to the exchange. Why?: The PFLP, a Palestinian nationalist organization with different ideological outlooks at different times (from Arab nationalist, to Maoist, to Leninist) sought to use spectacular tactics to bring world wide attention to Palestinian dispossession. They also sought an exchange of Palestinian militants held prisoner in Israeli prisons for the Israeli men they hostage. What Made the Hijacking Notable?: The 1968 bombing was the first time that the PFLP, or any Palestinian group, hijacked a plane. This spectacular form of terrorism, designed to get global attention, would become a regular occurrence over the next several years.The 1968 bombing was the first time that an El Al flight was hijacked. El Al is Israels major commercial carrier. Following the hijacking, El Al became extremely security-conscious and instituted the first baggage check program.This bombing is sometimes considered to be  the inaugural event for international terrorism. Also of Interest: History of TerrorismCarlos the Jackal, PFLP hired gun

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Network Design in Supply Chain Free Essays

18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP 18. We will write a custom essay sample on Network Design in Supply Chain or any similar topic only for you Order Now 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP ? Inventory is stored at the distributor or manufacturer ? Orders are shipped to designated pickup points where customers come and pick up their order 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP ? Cost factors ? Inventory; is low, aggregation at the manufacturer or distributor ? Transportation is lowest when using package carrier due to aggregation at pickup locations Facility and handling; facility costs are high if pick-up location does not exist already. Handling costs at pickup locations are high. ? Information system; More elaborative and sophisticated, extra system at the pickup locations. ? Service factors ? Response times; comparable to delivery with package carriers ? Customer experience; worse since customer has to pickup the item himself. On the other hand, since customer do not need to wait at home for delivery and customer can pay cash at the pickup lo cation instead of paying online in advance, some customers may like pickup option better. Time to market is similar to other options with manufacturer storage ? Order visibility is very important. Customers should be informed when their orders arrive. ? Returns are easier to handle at pickup location. Returns can be aggregated and shipped back from pickup locations. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin RETAIL STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUPS ? Inventories are stored in retail stores, customers walk into the store to pick the items they want or items they have ordered online or by phone. Mixed order placement options. Most traditional option. 8. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin RETAIL STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUPS ? Cost Factors ? Inventory costs are higher than other options as the inventories are disaggregated and held locally ? Transportation costs are lower than other solutions. Inexpensive modes can be used to replenish inventories at retail outlets. ? Facility costs are high. Many local facilities. ? Information system; Minimal if there is no online ordering option. For online option more complex information system especially for order visibility. ? Service Factors Response times are very good. Same day pickup for most products. ? Product variety is lower than other options. ? Product availability is costly to keep high. ? Customer experience depends on if the customer likes to shop or not. ? Time to market is highest. ? Order visibility is important if online ordering is allowed. ? Returns can be handled at the stores easily. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? Impact of E-Business on Customer Service ? Response time; For product that can be downloaded very fast. For physical products takes longer to fulfill an order than regular retail stores. ? Product variety; easier to offer variety than brick-and-mortar store. (Amazon; imagine the retail store with the same variety offered by Amazon) ? Product availability; Better information gathering and forecasting. Better mach between supply and demand, improved product availability. ? Customer experience; ? ? ? Access; 24 hour access. Geographically eliminating the access limits. Customization; customization of product and shopping experience. Dell, Amazon – displays related products) Convenience; Making the purchase at where you are.. Increased speed of conducting business. (e. g. Use of previous data for address info) ? Time to market; Fast. A new product can be made available as soon as a the first unit is ready. Dell exploits this feature. ? Order visibility; Critical to provide. Internet makes this happen. ? Returnability; Harder issue compared to traditional stores since items are sent from a central location usually. More returns with online purchases. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? Impact of E-Business on Customer Service ? Other benefits of e-business ? ? ? 18. 12. 2011 Enhanced revenues for manufacturers by eliminating intermediaries and having direct contact with customer. Dell v. s. HP. Flexible pricing, promotion and product portfolio ? Airline last-minute low cost seat, Dell’s ability of dynamic pricing depending on the component availability and demand. Efficient fund transfers; Quicker and cheaper. Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Impact of E-Business on Cost ? Inventory; Better mach of supply and demand, geographical aggregation lowers inventories. Ability of postponement also helps reducing inventory costs. ? Facilities and Handling ? ? ? ? Less and centralized facilities, fewer intermediaries lower facility cost. E-business can reduce the handling costs in order fulfillment by having the customer do some part of the process, e. g. checking product availability, enteri ng details of the order. Smoothing the rate of order fulfillment, thus reducing the resource requirements. Unlike the retail stores orders don’t have to be processed as soon as they arrive. On the downside, for some products like groceries, an e-business has to carry out some tasks currently performed by the customers at retail stores. E. g. Picking the items customer wants and carrying home. ? Transportation; Usually higher cost due to increased outbound transportation costs. For downloadable products, significantly less transportation cost. ? Information; Shared demand information, better coordination and collaboration reduces the overall supply chain costs. The cost of setting up the information system required can be significant. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? The value that e-business brings is not the same in every industry. ? Dell; a success story while Webvan is a failure ? E-business-Scorecard can be used to help decide if e- business is appropriate for your business, how it effects your distribution network in costs and customer services. ? All the costs and customer service factors are given a integer score from +2 (very positive) to -2(very negative) 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin How to cite Network Design in Supply Chain, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Modern Business Comparative and Perspective

Question: The difference between Fordism and Toyotism ? Answer : Introducation The Country, which has proved it to become the worlds largest consumer market for the trucks of light nature and the cars carrying passengers, is the United States. General Motors, Chrysler Corp. and Ford Motor Company have lead to a formation of the Big Three among the automakers of US (Gereffi 1999). The Ford system was further proved by the translation of Toyota by the implementation of the JIT system. The system implemented by Ford in the production plants set up at the earlier times, consisted the concept that by minimization of the time of gaps between the start and end of production is the best and most effective way of production of a vehicle. Ford achieved the same, through complete and higher levels of what is known to be as vertical integration. Though the JIT system has been unable to meet the modern day dialect, it has been apt in describing the system of inventory which is more complex in nature and used widely (Krafcik 1988). A large scale with a highly efficient and philosophy of production with consistency in the flow was adopted by Toyota. The philosophy was derived from Ford and was applied to the facilities of small scale, which was done in an interesting manner. Ford managed the simple nature because it was unable in achieving the volume for maintaining the standard of the product and the levels of the integration to be done vertically. On the other hand, Toyota honored the concept of the continuity in the flow of building a network locally, which contained the suppliers for integration with the assembly plant structure. Instead of building a product with standards of the model of Ford, Toyota was able to achieve the flexibility in the production of a variety of products. Toyota used the principles of continuous flow, which Henry Ford had never thought and would never have made an attempt. The use of the capability of Toyota was being able to stamp the metal parts of the sheet in lot sizes in hundred parts. The stamping was possible, as they had attained the knowledge of changing the stamping dies in minutes instead of hours. The flexibility of the same sort has been an advantage for the competitors who had the art of mastering the same (Liker 2006). The industry of US was not motionless in the 1980s and with the advent of the competition from Japan; US worked aggressively towards the improvement of their quality. US discovered that the workers of Japanese firms participated in solving the problems with the formation of a quality circle and the companies had a policy of building the qualities from the start, rather than carrying on the inspection process afterwards. The companies of US decided that they would be competing with having perfection in the cost effective measures and on time deliveries (Liker 2006). The US companies had taken a decade i.e. from the early 1980s to the early 1990s in figuring out that the Japanese had more techniques than the quality circle formations. The other techniques consisted of statistical process control (SPC) and preventative maintenance. The reason why US took a long time to recognize that Toyota had a leadership in the manufacturing of the automobiles with excellence, was because it only saw, whatever it wanted to see The system of mass production by Ford also helped them in bringing forward to their current situation and now they stand as the second largest automaker. It also stands as the largest corporate sector in the world but there are major challenges to their success. The major challenge in their success is the interaction of the mega company with the mega plants and the conversion of mass production to the lean production. General Motors, Chrysler and Ford have reached a conclusion that they need to turn lean and they are modeling on the Ford and Toyota Production System, as they regard them as the best system (Utterback and Surez 1993). The innovations were performed in an incremental manner, which were lower in price and had lines of attaining a product of high range of volumes. Both varieties of innovation were being led by the General Motors and more particularly for the major changes in the product. Engines change in higher magnitudes annually and the changes have an occurrence with a lower frequency than the characteristics in a chassis. The body plants have a greater flexibility and change more continuously whereas the engine plants have a tendency of changing in a manner with integration and systematic approach occasionally. Toyotism (Pull System) vs Fordism (Push System) The concept of Toyotism and Fordism are not simple case of alternative paradigms. The two systems i.e. the organization of production and the system of relationships with labor, have a relation with each other in various ways which are significant in nature. The concept of Fordism has a system, which is of a single-kind and has large-lot production whereas Toyotism has a system, which is of a multiple-kind and has small-lot production. Fordism consist the characteristic of pushing up the production by the process preceding to the same while, Toyotism has the characteristic of pushing up the production by the process subsequent to the production. In a more fundamental manner, the concepts are too different in nature as, Toyotism is a multifunctional worker and Fordism is the single-function worker (Dohse et al. 1985). Germany The country applies a mix of both the systems i.e. Ford and Toyota in the multiple layers of production system for crafting their own system of production. Germany had taken a different route from US. Even though, the production model of Germany had an orientation towards the mass production in the period between 1975 and 1985, there was a development of variety of range of the reforms of labour and programs of modernization in the productions. They were developed after a close cooperation among the association of employers, government and the unions. he process organization for an instance had a basis of the same principles of the mass production like in US. However, as the country had smaller size of companies and production runs, there was a lower marking for the concerns regarding the economies of the scale. Like US, the performance had a regulation of the standards setting methods of the Taylorist approach. The same was coupled with the scheme of incentive payments which were based on the rules and the procedures determined by the union and councils of work (Naruse 1991). The new designs of jobs were introduced which aimed at the enlargement of the job and enrichment from the immediate pressures of the assembly line and machinery. As compared to the counterparts of Japanese firms, the companies of Germany in the 1990s had a readiness for the rethinking and restructuring of the production model which has deeper meaning. The country was late in comparison to the US and other European countries, as the readiness for adaptation of changes came after sometime. German companies had satisfaction as they did not have the Japanese transplant in the country which would behave as a catalyst of change like in the US companies (Womack Jones and Roos 1990). The model of lean production had a propagation by the 1990s which came with the model of the just in time for the companies in Germany which seek in the recognition of the models in the efforts of retaining the competition internationally. The designs of the job had an emphasis on the teamwork which was a move away from the traditional way of the production, repair work and quality inspection which were the reason of higher costs. The process of the organization uses the central concepts of the model of lean production, which is adopted by major companies. In many cases, they are adopted only with the hesitation and in search of compromise with the practices in existing which are to be integrated into a newer approach. Criticism The interpretation of the Toyotism had seen a dynamic change in the system of Japan and the orientation of zero-buffer and zero-defect which pulls forward the other elements. The elements include teamwork, improvement activities and multi-skilling and the interpretation has a strong emphasis on industrial engineering, which is rooted into the accounts (Taiichi 1988) and (Shigeo 1981). References Dohse, K., U. Jurgens, and T. Nialsch. "From "Fordism" To "Toyotism"? The Social Organization Of The Labor Process In The Japanese Automobile Industry". Politics Society 14.2 (1985): 115-146. Web. Gereffi, G. (1999) A Commodity Chains Framework for Analyzing Global Industries Krafcik, J.F., 1988. Triumph of the lean production system.MIT Sloan Management Review,30(1), p.41. Liker, Jeffrey K. Becoming Lean. 1st ed. New York, NY: Productivity Press, 2006. Print. Naruse, Tatsuo. "Taylorism And Fordism In Japan". International Journal of Political Economy 21.3 (1991): 32-48. Web. Ohno, T., 1988.Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production. crc Press. Shingo, S., 1981. A Study ofthe Toyota Production System. Utterback, J.M. and Surez, F.F., 1993. Innovation, competition, and industry structure.Research policy,22(1), pp.1-21. Womack, J.P., Jones, D.T. and Roos, D., 1990.Machine that changed the world. Simon and Schuster.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Artificial Intelligence Essays (950 words) - Humanoid Robots

Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence once something that people thought could only come out of science fiction novels and movies. But today that could all change because of a robot called Cog. Cog is an artificial intelligence that it's creators have given a body. He is the future of AI and a new beginning for the field. His creator , Rogney Brooks, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science, thought of creating cog, from inspiration from an artificial intelligence that was depicted in the movie, "2001:A Space Odyssey." In the movie, Hal, the AI, controlled a large space craft. Instead of creating a brain in a box like in the movie, Rodney is putting the mind of a human into the body of a robot. Cog isn't yet a true humanoid robot. Right now he is little more that a head, neck , shoulders, chest and waist. He is perched on a gray steel pedestal bolted to the floor of the Artificial intelligence lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Still no other machine has come closer to the humanoid robots of science fiction. Cog foreshadows the day in which robots will interact normally with us. Cog's creators are trying to do just that. Cog is a very far cry from what HAL was thought, because he has some anatomy. HAL was just basically a brain in a box. What they are trying to accomplish with cog, is to equip a brain with a body, that has sensors so that it can learn about its environment on its own, much like a infant does. Creating a humanoid was a big leap for Brooks. His last venture in to the AI world made a big impression on the artificial-Intelligence community. He created small robots the scurried around like insects. It turns out though, that these small creatures have much in common with Cog. They both do no use the usual AI approach that most other Mobil robots use. These other robots, would have to carry a complete map of the world that the machine will encounter. That would work fine in the lab, Brooks reasoned, but what about the real world with it's vast space and many unfamiliar obstacles. To over overcome this problem, Brooks programmed this little robots with so-called parallel behaviors. He didn't need the all-encompassing maps others used, just simple leg routines, such as up-down and forward-back motions the operate in parallel. On the robot's legs sensors warded of obstacles and triggered these behaviors like reflexes. These machines ran riot in the lab where gradua! te students built new obstacles courses for them every day. The insect like robots managed to conquer all. Cog represents the basic same principal, but a few steps beyond. Brooks plans to take Cog a long way. Right now , Cog is learning how to see, and relate what he sees to his head motion, to be able to know what motion in the world, and what is dew to his head movement. They are letting Cog learn by its self. There are also plans to make ears for cog so that he may learn to hear. They have all ready completed a poly styrene head that is complete with micro-phones and processors. The first step in teaching Cog to hear is to map sensor coordination between the eyes and ears. With the done, when cog hears a sound, he will point his eyes at it, and then if he sees motion, that will reinforce what he just heard with the coordination of the two. Sound will help cog figure out where to look, but he will also be able to separate sounds, like people can do at a noisy cocktail party. These senses will help it to be able to interact with its environment and learn about its own body. What it sees verses what it is doing. There are also plans to give Cog the ability to be able to reach out and touch someone. Right now he has no arms at all. He can lean forwards and sideways at the hips, and turn its head, but that is all at the moment. Williamson, a graduate student on the Cog team, is building Cog's first arm as

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Motivating Staff essays

Motivating Staff essays There are plenty ways to motivating Staff in a company. Firstly, the managers need to know what the needs of his staff are, and how to motivate them. As different people have different needs, the ways of motivating them also differ. The salary is one of the most important factors. Since most workers needs money on their daily life, thus they work for money. Salary needed to be paid on time. Otherwise, this would demotivate them. In other words, if the workers had not receive their salary when due, the morale of works may be reduced. Trainings, incentives, holidays, welfare, and others rewards may be given to the staffs as the extrinsic reward. Most staffs welcome at least one of the rewards mention above, so if possible, why not give the rewards to the staffs as a motivation factors? Although not all, most people want promotion after a certain period of their works. Perhaps this may increase their status, or pay rise. Besides, they can put more commitment in their works as they have increased responsibility. Another factor is the condition of working environments. The air conditioning of an office should be well controlled, as well as the floors of the office. No one feels comfortable working in a dirty office. Although a clean office will not necessary motivating the staffs, but for sure, if such criteria are not fulfilled, the staffs get demotivated. Perhaps most people want to be self affirmed. Typically, the manager of a large organisation can't remember all the names of his/hers subordinates. But if he/she DOES, the scenario may be greatly enhanced. The staffs may thought, "Wow, the boss can remember my name even I am just a little workers. Then I must work hard to appreciate such recognition" There are no strict rules for a company or an organization to follow in the approach of motivating their staffs, but a combinations of the methods suggested above may prove useful in improving motivations. ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Self Reliance Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Self Reliance - Term Paper Example Self-Reliance – how to get that? The primary necessity for the presence of self-reliance in a leader is to understand what one is capable of doing and believe in the virtues of his/her values. If such belief is created within oneself, then there is every possibility for the emotional quotient of the human brain to generate energy that would motivate the leader to back every decision he makes and subsequently act on those decisions. So, it could be said that behind every successful organization or every successful team activity, there would always be a person who is able to display his motivations, inner self and as a result, will be capable of telling others who they are, why they do such things and what he wants them to do to in order to succeed in that activity. Any leader who is independent enough to act on his decisions can be considered as self-reliant. Advantage A major advantage of a self-reliant and an independent person is that they would be totally in control of thei r emotions while taking decisions. As a result, any problem could be dealt by them in a balanced manner and such a person would arrive at any decision only by understanding the pros and cons of that decision and would not allow any emotional leverage to pull them to any side. Also, when such decisions are made, one could easily motivate others in the team to act to their full potential because, they would be clearly aware that true and hard work will turn successful and be rewarded under the self-reliant person’s leadership. One exemplary example of self-reliance being the primary force of leadership could be the life and struggle of Gandhi, popularly called as the ‘father of India’ (Chadha, 1997). Gandhi brought into a country filled with chaos and fight, a sense of peacefulness and unity only through his self-reliance. He was not a well-built man and he was totally ignorant about the artilleries and nuances of war, but he was completely aware of what he is capa ble of. He understood his capabilities and fought with that. He always believed that to free India from the British, it can never be done through violence and action. Only with non-violent movements and consistent protests can there be any sort of positive movement. He stood in front of the British, took their beatings and still continued to fight in a non-violent way. His was a perfect example of how a leader can unite a nation just by his determination and self-reliance. His practices and preaches were clearly a result of understanding of his own true-self and the success that was tasted in the form of India’s freedom was actually a direct result of his self-reliant attitude (Chadha, 1997). It is evidently clear that from the above example, that unless one understands the true nature of himself, one can never become self-reliant and thus a good leader. It is an age old truth and even Emerson (1967), in his poem â€Å"Self-Reliance†, written several years ago has clea rly iterated this truth by stating that no man, irrespective of how much ever he tries and copies the attitude, living way or the behavior of other person, can never become another person and can only remain as his true self (Emerson, 1967). Negative-side There is another issue that could be considered as one of the negative effects of being self-reliant. If a person believes