Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Clinical morals - Essay Example significant type of commission guardians) may likewise be the victims of misuse (Laura M. Purdy). Moreover, it is contended that there are top notch purposes behind thinking about that business surrogacy is as often as possible exploitative. However, regardless of whether we accept this, the abuse fight for keeping out (or if not authoritatively frustrating) business surrogacy extras very powerless. One significant reason for this is boycott may well blowback and lead to potential proxies doing extra things that are increasingly exploitative and additionally extra harming than paid surrogacy. Most likely, it is done with the goal that the individuals who restrict misuse should (as opposed to endeavoring to stop demanding practices like business surrogacy) center around: (an) acculturating the conditions underneath which paid proxies work; and (b) changing the setting conditions (in demanding, the lopsided dispersion of influence and riches) which make exploitative relations (Laura M. Purdy). The term self-sufficiency is resultant from the Greek cars, which implies self and from the term migrants signification rule, administration or law. To be independent is to act naturally decided and to be in charge of ones life. With respect to wellbeing check care, being self-sufficient alludes to one creation a choice concerning individual clinical consideration issues for their self. Independence centers around regarding the capacity of an individual to settle on social insurance choices all alone. It is substantially more multifaceted than thinking about who is in control or who knows best the genuine issue is which of the essential moral principals hold advantage in some random circumstance. clinical paternalism prompts the weight of coercive life-drawing out measures in a way unaware to the patient; and it put off kicking the bucket patients and their families from enduring the contacting and money related difficulties brought about by the continuation of frantic clinical and specialized intercession; (Dialog.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Political way of thinking Essay Information IS FORMED AND ACQUIRED IN THE COURSE OF OUR LIFE THOUGH COGNITION AND IT IS NOT INBORN AND DEVELOPS FROM OUR OWN IGNORANCE. JOHN LOCKE COMPARED IT WITH TABULA RASA OR SOME SORT OF A BLANK SHEET UPON WHICH NOTHING IS WRITTEN. THESE ARE DATA OR IMAGES OF THE OBJECT WHICH STIMULATED OUR SENSE-ORGANS-SIGHT, HEARING, TOUCH, TASTE AND SMELL ARE, IN A MANNER OF SPEAKING, RAW-MATERIALS WHICH OUR BRAIN FORMS, THROUGH ABSTRACTION, INTO CONCEPTS OR IDEAS, AND WHICH WE EXPRESS IN SIGNS OR LANGUAGE. THERE ARE TWO OBSTACLES TO COGNITION THE BIASES WHICH BECLOUD THE HUMAN MIND AS Ã¢â¬Å"IDOLSÃ¢â¬ AND THE ERRORS IN REASONING WHICH ARE THE SO CALLED FALLACIES. Thinking IS A MEANS FOR ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE BUT IF IT IS FALLACIOUS IT CANNOT YIELD BUT DECEPTION. In addition THERE ARE THREE THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE NAMELY; EMPIRICISM, RATIONALISM AND INTUITIONISM. IN EMPIRICISM, KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE AND EXPERIENCE IS A SENSE OF PERCEPTION WHICH MAY BE UNDERSTOOD AS DIRECT OBSERVATION BY THE SENSES OR INDIRECT BY USING INSTRUMENT OR BY EXPERIMENTATION. Induction TEACHES THAT WHAT WE SEE, HEAR, TOUCH, OR SMELL, IS ALL THAT WE CAN KNOW. Exceptional EXPONENTS OF EMPIRICISM WERE JOHN LOCKE, GEORGE BERKELEY, DAVID HUME AND THE SO-CALLED LINGUISTIC PHILOSOPHERS. Logic MAINTAINS THAT REASON IS THE SOURCE AND TEST OF KNOWLEDGE AND NOT SENSE-PERCEPTION. Information CONSISTS OF CONCEPTS WHICH GENERALIZE ABOUT THE NATURE OF REALITY SO THAT IT HAS A UNIVERSAL AND PERMANENT CHARACTER. IT IS THE REASON OR THE INTELLECT WHICH Ã¢â¬Å"MANUFACTURESÃ¢â¬ THE DATA INTO CONCEPTS, JUDGMENTS AND LAWS, AND THAT IS HOW OUR KNOWLEDGE IS FORMED. WHAT WE KNOW IS Ã¢â¬Å"WHAT WE HAVE THOUGHT OUTÃ¢â¬ , OR WHAT REASON HAS Ã¢â¬Å"ABSTRACTEDÃ¢â¬ FROM THE DATA OF SENSE PERCEPTION. THE KNOWN DEFENDERS ARE PARMENIDES, PLATO OF ANCIENT GREECE, DESCARTES AND HEGEL OF THE MODERN WORLD. THE THIRD THEORY WHICH IS INTUITIONISM CLAIMS THAT THE SENSES CAN ONLY MIRROR THE APPEARANCE OF THINGS HENCE WHAT WE CALL SENSE-DATA, CANNOT TELL US WHAT THINGS ARE IN THEMSELVES. However, THROUGH INTUITION, WE CAN HAVE Ã¢â¬Å"A FEELÃ¢â¬ OF WHAT LIES BEYOND THE PHENOMENA CAPTURED BY OUR SENSES AND TRANSFORMED BY REASON INTO CONCEPTUAL SYMBOLS. Instinct Ã¢â¬Å"INTUEREÃ¢â¬ (TO LOOK INTO) IS A DIRECT APPREHENSION OF KNOWLEDGE WHICH IS NOT THE RESULT OF CONSCIOUS REASONING OR IMMEDIATE PERCEPTION. Include THE FACTS THAT THERE ARE TWO METHODS OF INTELLECTUAL INQUIRY, FIRST IS THE INTUITION THAT GRASPS THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF REALITY AND Ã¢â¬Å"TIMEÃ¢â¬ AND THE SECOND IS ANALYSIS WHICH IS THE STABILITY AND PREDICTABILITY, BUT OFFERS ONLY Ã¢â¬Å"A PHOTOGRAPHÃ¢â¬ OR Ã¢â¬Å"A SNAPSHOTÃ¢â¬ OF WHAT IS ESSENTIALLY A DYNAMIC, ACTIVE WORLD THE ONLY WAY TO BRIDGE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE Ã¢â¬Å"OBJECT KNOWNÃ¢â¬ AND Ã¢â¬Å"THE KNOWERÃ¢â¬ , WE MUST USE Ã¢â¬Å"INTELLECTUAL SYMPATHYÃ¢â¬ THAT EXPERIENCES BEING AS A WHOLE, AS Ã¢â¬Å"A DYNAMIC CONTINUUMÃ¢â¬ . Finally, THERE ARE DIFFERENT NOTIONS OF TRUTH NAMELY THE CORRESPONDENCE THEORY, COHERENCE THEORY, PRAGMATIC THEORY AND THE MARXIST THEORY. Instruction: THE WORD EDUCATION COMES FROM THE LATIN VERB Ã¢â¬Å"EDUCEREÃ¢â¬ (TO LEAD) OR FROM Ã¢â¬Å"EDUCAREÃ¢â¬ (DRAW OUT). Training IS THE ART OF LEADING OR GUIDING A PERSON TO SOCIAL CULTURE SO THAT BY EXPOSING HIM TO ITS COMPLEXITIES AND HE MAY ACTUALIZE HIS Introduction to Philosophy POTENTIALITIES. Each PERSON, REGARDLESS OF RACE, GENDER OR CLASS HAS A DORMANT POWER WHICH IF DRAWN OUT OR DEVELOPED COULD EQUIP THE INDIVIDUAL TO FILL A VARIETY OF ROLES IN SOCIETY. Instruction AND TRAINING IS OF DIFFERENT MEANING. Instruction HAS TO DO WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WHOLE PERSONALITY WHILE TRAINING DEALS WITH THE GAINING AND ACHIEVING OF SKILLS. THERE ARE AIMS OF EDUCATION; FIRST IS TO PREPARE. THE YOUNG FOR Ã¢â¬Å"CITIZENSHIPÃ¢â¬ -THE SUBTLE MEANS OF PROVIDING THE STATE IN ALONG RUN WITH FUTURE LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS WHO WOULD PUT INTEREST OF THE STATE AND NATION ABOVE SELF. SECOND AIM IS TO DEVELOP THE INDIVIDUAL Ã¢â¬Å"AS A MANÃ¢â¬ -ENABLE THE INDIVIDUAL TO REALIZE HIS POTENTIAL POWERS AS A HUMAN BEING SO HE COULD BE FREE IN OUTLINING HIS OWN DESTINY. THIRD, IT SHOULD AIM TO PRESERVE THE PREVAILING SOCIAL SYSTEM BY WAY OF TRANSMITTING THE IDEAS, THE BELIEFS, THE VALUES AND THE PRACTICES OF SOCIETY. FOURTH, IT AIMS TO CONTRIBUTE TO SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION AND IT MUST FOSTERÃ A NEW CONSCIOUSNESS THAT IS SUPPORTIVE OF THE PEOPLES DREAM AND STRUGGLE FOR A MORE JUST, HUMAINE AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. FIFTH, IT SHOULD PREPARE US FOR ETERNAL LIFE IN A PARADISE TO COME AND LASTLY IT SHOULD AIM TO COMPREHENSIVELY PREPARE US TO BE A Ã¢â¬Å"WORKERÃ¢â¬ OR TO BE Ã¢â¬Å"A CITIZEN AND TO BE Ã¢â¬Å"A PERSON. Ã¢â¬ EDUCATION HAS AN IDEOLOGICAL CHARACTER. TO LITTLE, INDEED, DOES THE SCHOOL GOING TO PUBLIC SUSPECT THAT EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION CAN BE MANIPULATED BY VESTED GROUPS FOR THEIR OWN POLITICAL INTERESTS. TO SOME PEOPLE WHOSE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL FORTUNES ARE ENTRENCHED THAT EDUCATION IS USED TO PROMOTE SOCIAL CONFORMITY AND AGREEMENT. TO OTHERS WHO HAVE NOTHING BUT THEIR STATE OF DEPRIVATION AND UNCERTAINTIES, EDUCATION CAN EMPOWER THEM TO STRUGGLE FOR SOCIAL CHARGE. Legislative issues: POLITICS IS A STRATEGY TO MAINTAIN ORDER AND COOPERATION AMONG PEOPLE OR INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERING NEEDS AND IDEALS IN LIFE, OR FOR REVOLVING CONFLICT WITHIN THE GROUP WHETHER THIS BE A FAMILY, A TRIBE, A VILLAGE OR A NATION-STATE. IT MAY BE UNDERSTOOD AS A CONTROL OVER THE SITUATION SO THAT DIFFERENCES ARE RESOLVED AND PREVENTED. THERE ARE TWO MAIN APPROACHES TO POLITICS NAMELY; POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY HAS A SPECULATIVE AND NORMATIVE CHARACTER BECAUSE IT DEALS WITH THE QUESTION OF WHAT IS POLITICS Ã¢â¬Å"OUGHT TO BEÃ¢â¬ OR WHAT IT SHOULD BE WHILE POLITICAL SCIENCE IS EMPIRICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE IN NATURE BECAUSE ITS MAIN CONCERN IS THE ANALYSIS AND DEFINITION OF THE STATE AND ITS INSTRUMENTALITIES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THEIR FUNCTIONS. Legislative issues IS THE SCIENCE AND ART OF GOVERNING SOCIETY IN THE PURSUIT OF COMMON GOOD THEN ITS CONCRETIZATION IS THE GOVERNMENT WHOSE AIM IS THE PEOPLE AND THE SECURITY AND WELFARE OF THE PEOPLE. FORTHETHREEGREATPHILOSOPHERSNAMELY;CONFUCIUS,PLATOANDNICCOLO. MACHIAVELLI TO BE GOOD RESPONSIBLE POLITICAL LEADERS OF STATE THERE ARE VERY ESSENTIAL QUALITIES TO BE CONSIDERED. FOR CONFUCIUS, POLITICAL LEADERSHIP IS NOT FOR THE COMFORT AND ENJOYMENT OF THE RULERS, NOR ARE THEY SIMPLY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF LAW AND ORDER, BUT FOR Ã¢â¬Å"THE HAPPINESS AND ENLIGHTENMENT OF THE PEOPLEÃ¢â¬ . HE ALSO PRESCRIBED THAT THOSE WHO ASPIRE TO LEAD THE PEOPLE MUST POSSESS THE VIRTUES OF HUMAN-HEARTEDNESS, RRIGHTEOUSNESS, PPROPRIETY AND Introduction to Philosophy WISDOM. FOR PLATO, A PERSONÃ¢â¬â¢S LIFE IS ORDERLY OR Ã¢â¬Å"JUSTÃ¢â¬ WHEN HIS REASON CONTROLS THE EMOTION AND TEMPERS THE APPETITES. THE THREE KINDS OF PEOPLE SHOULD POSSESS THREE ELEMENTS IN MAN. A RULER SHOULD EMBRACE REASON, THE SOLDIERS OR WARRIORS SHOULD DEAL WITH THEIR EMOTION AND THE ARTISANS OR ORDINARY PEOPLE SHOULD CONTROL THEIR APPETITES. ALL CITIZENS MUST UNDERGO RIGID PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL TRAINING. PLATOÃ¢â¬â¢S PHILOSOPHY ON EDUCATION WAS ONE OF SO CALLED SELECTION ELIMINATION. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI WROTE A BOOK ENTITLED, Ã¢â¬Å"THE PRINCE Ã¢â¬Å"POLITICS, AS AN EXERCISE OF POWER, SHOULD BE DIVORCED FROM MORALITY AND RELIGION. Legislative issues HAS NO MORALITY; IT IS A NAKED POWER OF Ã¢â¬Å"EXPEDIENCYÃ¢â¬ . Or on the other hand HIM AN EFFECTIVE LEADER IS BOTH. A FOX AND A LION, BOTH A MAN AND A BEAST AND BOTH GREAT PRETENDER OR GREAT DISSEMBLER. B. Examination (Critique) KNOWLEDGE: THESEARCHFORKNOWLEDGEISANEVER-ENDINGADVENTURE LIKEWEÃ¢â¬â¢VESEENIN MOVIES AND PLAYS. THE WHOLE OF REALITY IS TOO VAST THAT WE CAN KNOW ONLY TOO LITTLE OF IT IN OUR SHORT LIFE-TIME; Henceforth, IT WOULD BE THE HEIGHT OF INNOCENCE TO NARROW OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE, UNLESS WE CHOOSE TO CLOSE OUR MIND TO OTHER POSSIBILITIES. OUR KNOWLEDGE IS A PRODUCT OF ALL OUR ABILITIES, SENSATION, REASON AND INTUITION. Also, O AGREE WITH THE SAYING THAT Ã¢â¬Å"KNOWLEDGE IS POWERÃ¢â¬ , A POWER TO RECREATE THE WORLD, A POWER TO CONSTRUCT A BETTER SOCIETY WHERE ALL MEN AND WOMEN COULD LIVE WITH DIGNITY, FREEDOM AND PEACE. I DO BELIEVE THAT THERE ARE ALWAYS MORE TO KNOW SINCE IT IS DYNAMIC AND TOO ENORMOUS. WE SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE THE GUTS, THE PASSION AND THE LOVE TO LEARN AND TO CONTINUE SEARCHING AND BUILDING ON THE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE. Almost certainly, KNOWLEDGE ADDS COLOR AND RELATIVE CHARACTER TO MAKE OUR LIFE WORTH LIVING AND SPENDING. OUR KNOWLEDGE SHOULD NOT BE AFFECTED NOR DISTORTED BY OUR OWN COGNITION. WE SHOULD KEEP IN MIND TO ALWAYS USE REASONING SINCE IT IS ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE NOT JUST BASING IT TO WHAT WE PERCEIVE. Indeed, WE CAN CONSTRUCT KNOWLEDGE BY OUR SENSES TO EVERY SITUATION WEÃ¢â¬â¢RE EXPERIENCING YET WE SHOULD ALWAYS BE RATIONAL. Realize THE REASON TO EVERY DETAIL NOT TO JUSTIFY THINGS BUT RATHER TO BE REASONABLE IN JUDGING AND JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS. Information IS A STUFF OF REALITY; IT IS A WAY OF TRUTH AND NOT A WAY OF SEEMING OR GIVING OPINION. Additionally THE ONLY THING WE SHOULD NOT DOUBT IS THAT WE ALWAYS IN PARTICULAR SITUATION DOUBT. DONÃ¢â¬â¢T BE AFRAID TO DOUBT OR TO QUESTION THINGS BECAUSE IT IS A WAY OF ACQUIRING AND GAINING ALL WE NEED TO KNOW. Then again WE COULD STILL OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE THAT IT IS NOT THE SENSES, NOR REASON CAN PROVIDE ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF REALITY BUT THE SO CALLED INTUITION. Information IS AN INTERCONNECTED CHAIN WHEREIN THERE IS AN AGREEMENT WITH ONE SET OF KNOWLEDGE WITH ANOTHER SET OF IT. IT IS A CYCLE WITH NO BEGINNING AND ENDING. THE MORE WE BECOME CURIOUS THE MORE WE QUESTION AND THE MORE WE SEEK FOR THE ANSWER. WE ALWAYS HAVE THE PRIVILEGED TO OPEN OUR CLOSE UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD AND WE ARE FREE TO EXPLORE ITS LIMITATION AND BOUNDARY. WE ALWAYS HAVE THE KEY TO KNOW THE SECRETS OF THE REAL MEANING AND Introduction to
Monday, August 17, 2020
5 Tips for Coping With Anxiety in Work Meetings July 16, 2019 Social Anxiety Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Take control of your anxiety in meetings to improve your work life. Getty / Lumina Images In This Article Table of Contents Expand Practice Avoidance Behaviors Know Your Strengths Prepare Use Visuals Anxiety in meetings at work can be a problem for those with social anxiety disorder (SAD).?? Perhaps you have missed out on promotion opportunities because you didnt speak up in meetings like your colleagues. Or, maybe you have avoided promotions completely because they would mean that you would have to attend more meetings. If your anxiety is not severe or you are already in treatment for SAD, there are a number of coping strategies that you can use to help alleviate social anxiety in meetings at work. Practice If you are required to present during meetings, or simply wish to improve your skills at speaking to a group, there is no substitute for regular practice. In addition to practicing material on your own, you should consider joining a group like Toastmasters. Toastmasters offers more than just the chance to become a better public speaker. The organization will help you: Improve your ability to make introductionsThink on your feetTalk informally to a group During the first few sessions, you are free to observe and decide whether or not you want to participate. If Toastmasters isnt an option for you, you can still brush up on your communication skills. Make a point of telling a story in front of friends or asking a question of every guest at the next party you attend. View every social encounter as a chance to practice and become better at communicating. Top Tips for Managing Public Speaking Anxiety Manage Avoidance Behaviors Perhaps you have managed to get through business meetings by being so thoroughly prepared that you have a scripted answer to every question. Although preparation is important, being over-prepared is a subtle type of avoidance.?? It is just as important to trust yourself to be able to respond spontaneously to questions and discuss issues that arent pre-planned. Realize that in these situations, it is OK to say that you are unsure about something and that you will look into it. Other avoidance behaviors might include not looking anyone in the eye, covering your mouth when you talk, or simply avoiding speaking at all in a meeting. If you find yourself engaging in avoidance behaviors, give yourself permission to feel some anxiety in meetings.?? Realize its not the end of the world if others notice you are nervous, and eventually you will feel more comfortable. Put an End to Panic-Related Avoidance Know Your Strengths If you suffer from social anxiety in meetings, you will probably never be the most eloquent speaker in the group. However, that doesnt mean that you cant gradually improve your speaking skills to the point that you come across as professional and poised. In addition to being a good speaker, being a good listener is a valuable skill in meetings. If this sounds like you, use your listening skills to your advantage. If you listen carefully to what others say and choose your words carefully, others will admire your wisdom and patience. Practicing Active Listening in Your Daily Conversations Prepare A reasonable amount of preparation will leave you feeling confident and prepared. On the other hand, over-preparing or under-preparing may leave you feeling even more anxiousâ"particularly because these are often a reflection of your anxiety. What to Think About in Advance If you arent sure how much to prepare, read through the tips below:Prepare and research issues before a meeting so that you are up to speed.Wear clothing that is comfortable and professional, and that makes you feel good.Talk on the phone with a friend or family member who makes you feel relaxed before a meeting, and then carry that feeling with you into the meeting.Arrive at least 10 minutes early so that you can meet people as they arrive. Use Visuals Visuals are great tools both for getting a message across and drawing attention away from yourself. If you are speaking to the group, use some sort of visual medium as part of your presentation. Not only will this enhance the message you are trying to communicate, but it will take the pressure off of you being alone in the spotlight. Spotlight Effect: Not Everyone Is Looking at You A Word From Verywell If you suffer from severe social anxiety, there is no substitute for treatment such as medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).?? In combination with the tips above, you should be well on your way to successfully managing social anxiety in meetings at work.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Logos, Pathos and Ethos in Mark Twains The Damned Human Race and Barbara Kingsolvers Stone Soup Free Essay Example, 1000 words
Twain goes further to set three main frameworks for his discussions by defining what humans, mammals and other lesser creatures are. This involves ethos because it sets the framework for the discussion and analysis. Then he discusses the issues of the negativity of the human race, starting from the way human beings kill other animals, how powerful people exploit the poor and cheat and this is something that other animals never do. This is a form of pathos that appeals to the emotions of the reader and gets the reader to accept Twain s unique viewpoint. He scientifically identifies that animals have emotions and hatreds by saying that among the animals, man is the only one that harbors insults and injuries, broods over them, waits till a chance offers, then takes revenge. (Twain Para 4). This is logos and offers a logical explanation of how human beings differ from all other creatures around the world. He then goes on to appeal to the emotions of the reader by stating comparing the harem of roosters to men who force women into sex. We will write a custom essay sample on Logos, Pathos and Ethos in Mark Twains The Damned Human Race and Barbara Kingsolvers Stone Soup or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
On July 22, 1968, an El Al Israel Airlines plan departing from Rome and headed for Tel Aviv, Israel, was hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They successfully diverted the plane, carrying 32 passengers and 10 crew members, to Algiers. Most of the passengers were released relatively quickly, but for seven crew members and five Israeli male passengers, who were held hostage for five weeks. After 40 days of negotiation, the Israelis agreed to the exchange. Why?: The PFLP, a Palestinian nationalist organization with different ideological outlooks at different times (from Arab nationalist, to Maoist, to Leninist) sought to use spectacular tactics to bring world wide attention to Palestinian dispossession. They also sought an exchange of Palestinian militants held prisoner in Israeli prisons for the Israeli men they hostage. What Made the Hijacking Notable?: The 1968 bombing was the first time that the PFLP, or any Palestinian group, hijacked a plane. This spectacular form of terrorism, designed to get global attention, would become a regular occurrence over the next several years.The 1968 bombing was the first time that an El Al flight was hijacked. El Al is Israels major commercial carrier. Following the hijacking, El Al became extremely security-conscious and instituted the first baggage check program.This bombing is sometimes considered to beÃ the inaugural event for international terrorism. Also of Interest: History of TerrorismCarlos the Jackal, PFLP hired gun
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP 18. We will write a custom essay sample on Network Design in Supply Chain or any similar topic only for you Order Now 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP ? Inventory is stored at the distributor or manufacturer ? Orders are shipped to designated pickup points where customers come and pick up their order 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP ? Cost factors ? Inventory; is low, aggregation at the manufacturer or distributor ? Transportation is lowest when using package carrier due to aggregation at pickup locations Facility and handling; facility costs are high if pick-up location does not exist already. Handling costs at pickup locations are high. ? Information system; More elaborative and sophisticated, extra system at the pickup locations. ? Service factors ? Response times; comparable to delivery with package carriers ? Customer experience; worse since customer has to pickup the item himself. On the other hand, since customer do not need to wait at home for delivery and customer can pay cash at the pickup lo cation instead of paying online in advance, some customers may like pickup option better. Time to market is similar to other options with manufacturer storage ? Order visibility is very important. Customers should be informed when their orders arrive. ? Returns are easier to handle at pickup location. Returns can be aggregated and shipped back from pickup locations. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin RETAIL STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUPS ? Inventories are stored in retail stores, customers walk into the store to pick the items they want or items they have ordered online or by phone. Mixed order placement options. Most traditional option. 8. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin RETAIL STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUPS ? Cost Factors ? Inventory costs are higher than other options as the inventories are disaggregated and held locally ? Transportation costs are lower than other solutions. Inexpensive modes can be used to replenish inventories at retail outlets. ? Facility costs are high. Many local facilities. ? Information system; Minimal if there is no online ordering option. For online option more complex information system especially for order visibility. ? Service Factors Response times are very good. Same day pickup for most products. ? Product variety is lower than other options. ? Product availability is costly to keep high. ? Customer experience depends on if the customer likes to shop or not. ? Time to market is highest. ? Order visibility is important if online ordering is allowed. ? Returns can be handled at the stores easily. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? Impact of E-Business on Customer Service ? Response time; For product that can be downloaded very fast. For physical products takes longer to fulfill an order than regular retail stores. ? Product variety; easier to offer variety than brick-and-mortar store. (Amazon; imagine the retail store with the same variety offered by Amazon) ? Product availability; Better information gathering and forecasting. Better mach between supply and demand, improved product availability. ? Customer experience; ? ? ? Access; 24 hour access. Geographically eliminating the access limits. Customization; customization of product and shopping experience. Dell, Amazon Ã¢â¬â displays related products) Convenience; Making the purchase at where you are.. Increased speed of conducting business. (e. g. Use of previous data for address info) ? Time to market; Fast. A new product can be made available as soon as a the first unit is ready. Dell exploits this feature. ? Order visibility; Critical to provide. Internet makes this happen. ? Returnability; Harder issue compared to traditional stores since items are sent from a central location usually. More returns with online purchases. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? Impact of E-Business on Customer Service ? Other benefits of e-business ? ? ? 18. 12. 2011 Enhanced revenues for manufacturers by eliminating intermediaries and having direct contact with customer. Dell v. s. HP. Flexible pricing, promotion and product portfolio ? Airline last-minute low cost seat, DellÃ¢â¬â¢s ability of dynamic pricing depending on the component availability and demand. Efficient fund transfers; Quicker and cheaper. Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Impact of E-Business on Cost ? Inventory; Better mach of supply and demand, geographical aggregation lowers inventories. Ability of postponement also helps reducing inventory costs. ? Facilities and Handling ? ? ? ? Less and centralized facilities, fewer intermediaries lower facility cost. E-business can reduce the handling costs in order fulfillment by having the customer do some part of the process, e. g. checking product availability, enteri ng details of the order. Smoothing the rate of order fulfillment, thus reducing the resource requirements. Unlike the retail stores orders donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be processed as soon as they arrive. On the downside, for some products like groceries, an e-business has to carry out some tasks currently performed by the customers at retail stores. E. g. Picking the items customer wants and carrying home. ? Transportation; Usually higher cost due to increased outbound transportation costs. For downloadable products, significantly less transportation cost. ? Information; Shared demand information, better coordination and collaboration reduces the overall supply chain costs. The cost of setting up the information system required can be significant. 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin E-BUSINESS AND THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ? The value that e-business brings is not the same in every industry. ? Dell; a success story while Webvan is a failure ? E-business-Scorecard can be used to help decide if e- business is appropriate for your business, how it effects your distribution network in costs and customer services. ? All the costs and customer service factors are given a integer score from +2 (very positive) to -2(very negative) 18. 12. 2011 Fusun Ulengin How to cite Network Design in Supply Chain, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: The difference between Fordism and Toyotism ? Answer : Introducation The Country, which has proved it to become the worlds largest consumer market for the trucks of light nature and the cars carrying passengers, is the United States. General Motors, Chrysler Corp. and Ford Motor Company have lead to a formation of the Big Three among the automakers of US (Gereffi 1999). The Ford system was further proved by the translation of Toyota by the implementation of the JIT system. The system implemented by Ford in the production plants set up at the earlier times, consisted the concept that by minimization of the time of gaps between the start and end of production is the best and most effective way of production of a vehicle. Ford achieved the same, through complete and higher levels of what is known to be as vertical integration. Though the JIT system has been unable to meet the modern day dialect, it has been apt in describing the system of inventory which is more complex in nature and used widely (Krafcik 1988). A large scale with a highly efficient and philosophy of production with consistency in the flow was adopted by Toyota. The philosophy was derived from Ford and was applied to the facilities of small scale, which was done in an interesting manner. Ford managed the simple nature because it was unable in achieving the volume for maintaining the standard of the product and the levels of the integration to be done vertically. On the other hand, Toyota honored the concept of the continuity in the flow of building a network locally, which contained the suppliers for integration with the assembly plant structure. Instead of building a product with standards of the model of Ford, Toyota was able to achieve the flexibility in the production of a variety of products. Toyota used the principles of continuous flow, which Henry Ford had never thought and would never have made an attempt. The use of the capability of Toyota was being able to stamp the metal parts of the sheet in lot sizes in hundred parts. The stamping was possible, as they had attained the knowledge of changing the stamping dies in minutes instead of hours. The flexibility of the same sort has been an advantage for the competitors who had the art of mastering the same (Liker 2006). The industry of US was not motionless in the 1980s and with the advent of the competition from Japan; US worked aggressively towards the improvement of their quality. US discovered that the workers of Japanese firms participated in solving the problems with the formation of a quality circle and the companies had a policy of building the qualities from the start, rather than carrying on the inspection process afterwards. The companies of US decided that they would be competing with having perfection in the cost effective measures and on time deliveries (Liker 2006). The US companies had taken a decade i.e. from the early 1980s to the early 1990s in figuring out that the Japanese had more techniques than the quality circle formations. The other techniques consisted of statistical process control (SPC) and preventative maintenance. The reason why US took a long time to recognize that Toyota had a leadership in the manufacturing of the automobiles with excellence, was because it only saw, whatever it wanted to see The system of mass production by Ford also helped them in bringing forward to their current situation and now they stand as the second largest automaker. It also stands as the largest corporate sector in the world but there are major challenges to their success. The major challenge in their success is the interaction of the mega company with the mega plants and the conversion of mass production to the lean production. General Motors, Chrysler and Ford have reached a conclusion that they need to turn lean and they are modeling on the Ford and Toyota Production System, as they regard them as the best system (Utterback and Surez 1993). The innovations were performed in an incremental manner, which were lower in price and had lines of attaining a product of high range of volumes. Both varieties of innovation were being led by the General Motors and more particularly for the major changes in the product. Engines change in higher magnitudes annually and the changes have an occurrence with a lower frequency than the characteristics in a chassis. The body plants have a greater flexibility and change more continuously whereas the engine plants have a tendency of changing in a manner with integration and systematic approach occasionally. Toyotism (Pull System) vs Fordism (Push System) The concept of Toyotism and Fordism are not simple case of alternative paradigms. The two systems i.e. the organization of production and the system of relationships with labor, have a relation with each other in various ways which are significant in nature. The concept of Fordism has a system, which is of a single-kind and has large-lot production whereas Toyotism has a system, which is of a multiple-kind and has small-lot production. Fordism consist the characteristic of pushing up the production by the process preceding to the same while, Toyotism has the characteristic of pushing up the production by the process subsequent to the production. In a more fundamental manner, the concepts are too different in nature as, Toyotism is a multifunctional worker and Fordism is the single-function worker (Dohse et al. 1985). Germany The country applies a mix of both the systems i.e. Ford and Toyota in the multiple layers of production system for crafting their own system of production. Germany had taken a different route from US. Even though, the production model of Germany had an orientation towards the mass production in the period between 1975 and 1985, there was a development of variety of range of the reforms of labour and programs of modernization in the productions. They were developed after a close cooperation among the association of employers, government and the unions. he process organization for an instance had a basis of the same principles of the mass production like in US. However, as the country had smaller size of companies and production runs, there was a lower marking for the concerns regarding the economies of the scale. Like US, the performance had a regulation of the standards setting methods of the Taylorist approach. The same was coupled with the scheme of incentive payments which were based on the rules and the procedures determined by the union and councils of work (Naruse 1991). The new designs of jobs were introduced which aimed at the enlargement of the job and enrichment from the immediate pressures of the assembly line and machinery. As compared to the counterparts of Japanese firms, the companies of Germany in the 1990s had a readiness for the rethinking and restructuring of the production model which has deeper meaning. The country was late in comparison to the US and other European countries, as the readiness for adaptation of changes came after sometime. German companies had satisfaction as they did not have the Japanese transplant in the country which would behave as a catalyst of change like in the US companies (Womack Jones and Roos 1990). The model of lean production had a propagation by the 1990s which came with the model of the just in time for the companies in Germany which seek in the recognition of the models in the efforts of retaining the competition internationally. The designs of the job had an emphasis on the teamwork which was a move away from the traditional way of the production, repair work and quality inspection which were the reason of higher costs. The process of the organization uses the central concepts of the model of lean production, which is adopted by major companies. In many cases, they are adopted only with the hesitation and in search of compromise with the practices in existing which are to be integrated into a newer approach. Criticism The interpretation of the Toyotism had seen a dynamic change in the system of Japan and the orientation of zero-buffer and zero-defect which pulls forward the other elements. The elements include teamwork, improvement activities and multi-skilling and the interpretation has a strong emphasis on industrial engineering, which is rooted into the accounts (Taiichi 1988) and (Shigeo 1981). References Dohse, K., U. Jurgens, and T. Nialsch. "From "Fordism" To "Toyotism"? The Social Organization Of The Labor Process In The Japanese Automobile Industry". Politics Society 14.2 (1985): 115-146. Web. Gereffi, G. (1999) A Commodity Chains Framework for Analyzing Global Industries Krafcik, J.F., 1988. Triumph of the lean production system.MIT Sloan Management Review,30(1), p.41. Liker, Jeffrey K. Becoming Lean. 1st ed. New York, NY: Productivity Press, 2006. Print. Naruse, Tatsuo. "Taylorism And Fordism In Japan". International Journal of Political Economy 21.3 (1991): 32-48. Web. Ohno, T., 1988.Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production. crc Press. Shingo, S., 1981. A Study ofthe Toyota Production System. Utterback, J.M. and Surez, F.F., 1993. 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